In this section we explain what the
Access-Control-Allow-Origin header is in respect of CORS, and how it forms part of CORS implementation.
The cross-origin resource sharing specification provides controlled relaxation of the same-origin policy for HTTP requests to one website domain from another through the use of a collection of HTTP headers. Browsers permit access to responses to cross-origin requests based upon these header instructions.
Access-Control-Allow-Origin header is included in the response from one website to a request originating from another website, and identifies the permitted origin of the request. A web browser compares the Access-Control-Allow-Origin with the requesting website's origin and permits access to the response if they match.
The cross-origin resource sharing (CORS) specification prescribes header content exchanged between web servers and browsers that restricts origins for web resource requests outside of the origin domain. The CORS specification identifies a collection of protocol headers of which
Access-Control-Allow-Origin is the most significant. This header is returned by a server when a website requests a cross-domain resource, with an
Origin header added by the browser.
For example, suppose a website with origin
normal-website.com causes the following cross-domain request:
GET /data HTTP/1.1
Origin : https://normal-website.com
The server on
robust-website.com returns the following response:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
The browser will allow code running on
normal-website.com to access the response because the origins match.
The specification of
Access-Control-Allow-Origin allows for multiple origins, or the value
null, or the wildcard
*. However, no browser supports multiple origins and there are restrictions on the use of the wildcard
The default behavior of cross-origin resource requests is for requests to be passed without credentials like cookies and the Authorization header. However, the cross-domain server can permit reading of the response when credentials are passed to it by setting the CORS
GET /data HTTP/1.1
And the response to the request is:
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Then the browser will permit the requesting website to read the response, because the
Access-Control-Allow-Credentials response header is set to
true. Otherwise, the browser will not allow access to the response.
Access-Control-Allow-Origin supports wildcards. For example:
Note that wildcards cannot be used within any other value. For example, the following header is not valid:
Fortunately, from a security perspective, the use of the wildcard is restricted in the specification as you cannot combine the wildcard with the cross-origin transfer of credentials (authentication, cookies or client-side certificates). Consequently, a cross-domain server response of the form:
is not permitted as this would be dangerously insecure, exposing any authenticated content on the target site to everyone.
Given these constraints, some web servers dynamically create
Access-Control-Allow-Origin headers based upon the client-specified origin. This is a workaround for CORS constraints that is not secure.
The pre-flight check was added to the CORS specification to protect legacy resources from the expanded request options allowed by CORS. Under certain circumstances, when a cross-domain request includes a non-standard HTTP method or headers, the cross-origin request is preceded by a request using the
OPTIONS method, and the CORS protocol necessitates an initial check on what methods and headers are permitted prior to allowing the cross-origin request. This is called the pre-flight check. The server returns a list of allowed methods in addition to the trusted origin and the browser checks to see if the requesting website's method is allowed.
For example, this is a pre-flight request that is seeking to use the
PUT method together with a custom request header called
OPTIONS /data HTTP/1.1
Host: <some website>
The server might return a response like the following:
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
Access-Control-Allow-Methods: PUT, POST, OPTIONS
This response sets out the allowed methods (
OPTIONS) and permitted request headers (
Special-Request-Header). In this particular case the cross-domain server also allows the sending of credentials, and the
Access-Control-Max-Age header defines a maximum timeframe for caching the pre-flight response for reuse. If the request methods and headers are permitted (as they are in this example) then the browser processes the cross-origin request in the usual way. Pre-flight checks add an extra HTTP request round-trip to the cross-domain request, so they increase the browsing overhead.
CORS does not provide protection against cross-site request forgery (CSRF) attacks, this is a common misconception.
CORS is a controlled relaxation of the same-origin policy, so poorly configured CORS may actually increase the possibility of CSRF attacks or exacerbate their impact.
There are various ways to perform CSRF attacks without using CORS, including simple HTML forms and cross-domain resource includes.