How to find and exploit information disclosure vulnerabilities
In this section, we'll provide practical advice on some techniques and tools that you can use to help identify information disclosure in a broad range of contexts. We've also provided several labs so that you can practice extracting different kinds of information that could be used as part of a further attack.
How to test for information disclosure vulnerabilities
Generally speaking, it is important not to develop "tunnel vision" during testing. In other words, you should avoid focussing too narrowly on a particular vulnerability. Sensitive data can be leaked in all kinds of places, so it is important not to miss anything that could be useful later. You will often find sensitive data while testing for something else. A key skill is being able to recognize interesting information whenever and wherever you do come across it.
The following are some examples of high-level techniques and tools that you can use to help identify information disclosure vulnerabilities during testing.
If you identify interesting parameters, you can try submitting unexpected data types and specially crafted fuzz strings to see what effect this has. Pay close attention; although responses sometimes explicitly disclose interesting information, they can also hint at the application's behavior more subtly. For example, this could be a slight difference in the time taken to process the request. Even if the content of an error message doesn't disclose anything, sometimes the fact that one error case was encountered instead of another one is useful information in itself.
You can automate much of this process using tools such as Burp Intruder. This provides several benefits. Most notably, you can:
- Add payload positions to parameters and use pre-built wordlists of fuzz strings to test a high volume of different inputs in quick succession.
- Easily identify differences in responses by comparing HTTP status codes, response times, lengths, and so on.
Use grep matching rules to quickly identify occurrences of keywords, such as
SQL, and so on.
- Apply grep extraction rules to extract and compare the content of interesting items within responses.
You can also use the Logger++ extension, available from the BApp store. In addition to logging requests and responses from all of Burp's tools, it allows you to define advanced filters for highlighting interesting entries. This is just one of the many Burp extensions that can help you find any sensitive data that is leaked by the website.
Using Burp Scanner
Burp Suite Professional users have the benefit of Burp Scanner. This provides live scanning features for auditing items while you browse, or you can schedule automated scans to crawl and audit the target site on your behalf. Both approaches will automatically flag many information disclosure vulnerabilities for you. For example, Burp Scanner will alert you if it finds sensitive information such as private keys, email addresses, and credit card numbers in a response. It will also identify any backup files, directory listings, and so on.
Using Burp's engagement tools
Burp provides several engagement tools that you can use to find interesting information in the target website more easily. You can access the engagement tools from the context menu - just right-click on any HTTP message, Burp Proxy entry, or item in the site map and go to "Engagement tools".
The following tools are particularly useful in this context.
You can use this tool to look for any expression within the selected item. You can fine-tune the results using various advanced search options, such as regex search or negative search. This is useful for quickly finding occurrences (or absences) of specific keywords of interest.
You can use this tool to quickly extract any developer comments found in the selected item. It also provides tabs to instantly access the HTTP request/response cycle in which each comment was found.
You can use this tool to identify additional content and functionality that is not linked from the website's visible content. This can be useful for finding additional directories and files that won't necessarily appear in the site map automatically.
Engineering informative responses
Verbose error messages can sometimes disclose interesting information while you go about your normal testing workflow. However, by studying the way error messages change according to your input, you can take this one step further. In some cases, you will be able to manipulate the website in order to extract arbitrary data via an error message.
There are numerous methods for doing this depending on the particular scenario you encounter. One common example is to make the application logic attempt an invalid action on a specific item of data. For example, submitting an invalid parameter value might lead to a stack trace or debug response that contains interesting details. You can sometimes cause error messages to disclose the value of your desired data in the response.
Common sources of information disclosure
Information disclosure can occur in a wide variety of contexts within a website. The following are some common examples of places where you can look to see if sensitive information is exposed.
- Files for web crawlers
- Directory listings
- Developer comments LABS
- Error messages LABS
- Debugging data LABS
- User account pages LABS
- Backup files LABS
- Insecure configuration LABS
- Version control history LABS
Files for web crawlers
Many websites provide files at
/sitemap.xml to help crawlers navigate their site. Among other things, these files often list specific directories that the crawlers should skip, for example, because they may contain sensitive information.
As these files are not usually linked from within the website, they may not immediately appear in Burp's site map. However, it is worth trying to navigate to
/sitemap.xml manually to see if you find anything of use.
Web servers can be configured to automatically list the contents of directories that do not have an index page present. This can aid an attacker by enabling them to quickly identify the resources at a given path, and proceed directly to analyzing and attacking those resources. It particularly increases the exposure of sensitive files within the directory that are not intended to be accessible to users, such as temporary files and crash dumps.
Directory listings themselves are not necessarily a security vulnerability. However, if the website also fails to implement proper access control, leaking the existence and location of sensitive resources in this way is clearly an issue.
During development, in-line HTML comments are sometimes added to the markup. These comments are typically stripped before changes are deployed to the production environment. However, comments can sometimes be forgotten, missed, or even left in deliberately because someone wasn't fully aware of the security implications. Although these comments are not visible on the rendered page, they can easily be accessed using Burp, or even your browser's built-in developer tools.
Occasionally, these comments contain information that is useful to an attacker. For example, they might hint at the existence of hidden directories or provide clues about the application logic.
One of the most common causes of information disclosure is verbose error messages. As a general rule, you should pay close attention to all error messages you encounter during auditing.
The content of error messages can reveal information about what input or data type is expected from a given parameter. This can help you to narrow down your attack by identifying exploitable parameters. It may even just prevent you from wasting time trying to inject payloads that simply won't work.
Verbose error messages can also provide information about different technologies being used by the website. For example, they might explicitly name a template engine, database type, or server that the website is using, along with its version number. This information can be useful because you can easily search for any documented exploits that may exist for this version. Similarly, you can check whether there are any common configuration errors or dangerous default settings that you may be able to exploit. Some of these may be highlighted in the official documentation.
You might also discover that the website is using some kind of open-source framework. In this case, you can study the publicly available source code, which is an invaluable resource for constructing your own exploits.
Differences between error messages can also reveal different application behavior that is occurring behind the scenes. Observing differences in error messages is a crucial aspect of many techniques, such as SQL injection, username enumeration, and so on.
For debugging purposes, many websites generate custom error messages and logs that contain large amounts of information about the application's behavior. While this information is useful during development, it is also extremely useful to an attacker if it is leaked in the production environment.
Debug messages can sometimes contain vital information for developing an attack, including:
- Values for key session variables that can be manipulated via user input
- Hostnames and credentials for back-end components
- File and directory names on the server
- Keys used to encrypt data transmitted via the client
Debugging information may sometimes be logged in a separate file. If an attacker is able to gain access to this file, it can serve as a useful reference for understanding the application's runtime state. It can also provide several clues as to how they can supply crafted input to manipulate the application state and control the information received.
User account pages
By their very nature, a user's profile or account page usually contains sensitive information, such as the user's email address, phone number, API key, and so on. As users normally only have access to their own account page, this does not represent a vulnerability in itself. However, some websites contain logic flaws that potentially allow an attacker to leverage these pages in order to view other users' data.
For example, consider a website that determines which user's account page to load based on a
Most websites will take steps to prevent an attacker from simply changing this parameter to access arbitrary users' account pages. However, sometimes the logic for loading individual items of data is not as robust.
An attacker may not be able to load another users' account page entirely, but the logic for fetching and rendering the user's registered email address, for example, might not check that the
user parameter matches the user that is currently logged in. In this case, simply changing the
user parameter would allow an attacker to display arbitrary users' email addresses on their own account page.
We'll look at these kind of vulnerabilities in more detail when we cover access control and IDOR vulnerabilities.
Source code disclosure via backup files
Obtaining source code access makes it much easier for an attacker to understand the application's behavior and construct high-severity attacks. Sensitive data is sometimes even hard-coded within the source code. Typical examples of this include API keys and credentials for accessing back-end components.
If you can identify that a particular open-source technology is being used, this provides easy access to a limited amount of source code.
Occasionally, it is even possible to cause the website to expose its own source code. When mapping out a website, you might find that some source code files are referenced explicitly. Unfortunately, requesting them does not usually reveal the code itself. When a server handles files with a particular extension, such as
.php, it will typically execute the code, rather than simply sending it to the client as text. However, in some situations, you can trick a website into returning the contents of the file instead. For example, text editors often generate temporary backup files while the original file is being edited. These temporary files are usually indicated in some way, such as by appending a tilde (
~) to the filename or adding a different file extension. Requesting a code file using a backup file extension can sometimes allow you to read the contents of the file in the response.
Once an attacker has access to the source code, this can be a huge step towards being able to identify and exploit additional vulnerabilities that would otherwise be almost impossible. One such example is insecure deserialization. We'll look at this vulnerability later in a dedicated topic.
Information disclosure due to insecure configuration
Websites are sometimes vulnerable as a result of improper configuration. This is especially common due to the widespread use of third-party technologies, whose vast array of configuration options are not necessarily well-understood by those implementing them.
In other cases, developers might forget to disable various debugging options in the production environment. For example, the HTTP
TRACE method is designed for diagnostic purposes. If enabled, the web server will respond to requests that use the
TRACE method by echoing in the response the exact request that was received. This behavior is often harmless, but occasionally leads to information disclosure, such as the name of internal authentication headers that may be appended to requests by reverse proxies.
Version control history
Virtually all websites are developed using some form of version control system, such as Git. By default, a Git project stores all of its version control data in a folder called
.git. Occasionally, websites expose this directory in the production environment. In this case, you might be able to access it by simply browsing to
While it is often impractical to manually browse the raw file structure and contents, there are various methods for downloading the entire
.git directory. You can then open it using your local installation of Git to gain access to the website's version control history. This may include logs containing committed changes and other interesting information.
This might not give you access to the full source code, but comparing the diff will allow you to read small snippets of code. As with any source code, you might also find sensitive data hard-coded within some of the changed lines.