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DOM-based WebSocket-URL poisoning

In this section, we'll talk about how WebSocket URLs can be poisoned using DOM-based attacks, discuss the impact of WebSocket-URL poisoning, and suggest ways you can reduce your exposure to this kind of attack.

What is DOM-based WebSocket-URL poisoning?

WebSocket-URL poisoning occurs when a script uses controllable data as the target URL of a WebSocket connection. An attacker may be able to use this vulnerability to construct a URL that, if visited by another user, will cause the user's browser to open a WebSocket connection to a URL that is under the attacker's control.

What is the impact of WebSocket-URL poisoning?

The potential impact of WebSocket-URL poisoning depends on how the website uses WebSockets. If the website transmits sensitive data from the user's browser to the WebSocket server, then the attacker may be able to capture this data.

If the application reads data from the WebSocket server and processes it in some way, the attacker may be able to subvert the website's logic or deliver client-side attacks against the user.

Which sinks can lead to WebSocket-URL poisoning vulnerabilities?

The WebSocket constructor can lead to WebSocket-URL poisoning vulnerabilities.

How to prevent DOM-based WebSocket-URL poisoning vulnerabilities

In addition to the general measures described on the DOM-based vulnerabilities page, you should avoid allowing data from any untrusted source to dynamically set the target URL of a WebSocket connection.